In psychology, there are many figures who contributed theories that were very influential in the development of psychology. From time to time, there are so many new figures born to perfect the science. However, do you know who is the originator of the science of psychology? Yes, you are right, it is Sigmund Freud. Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian descendant and founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. In Freud’s life there were theories that became the basis for the development of the world of psychology. According to Freud, the life of the soul has three levels of consciousness, namely conscious (conscious), preconscious (preconscious), and unconscious (unconscious). The concept of Freud’s most famous theory is that the subconscious controls most behavior. In addition, he also stated that human behavior is based on the desire for sexuality (eros) which was originally started by humans since childhood from their mothers. Freud is the originator of the school of psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalysis is considered as one of the revolutionary movements in the field of psychology which started from a method of healing the mentally ill, to become a new conception of human beings. The main thesis of psychoanalysis states that human behavior is determined by unconscious motives, so that Freud is dubbed as the father of observers who can live the human unconscious. In Freud’s theory of personality that humans consist of three systems/structures/personalities:
- Id (Das Es)
The id is an innate human trait from birth, as a system it has a function to fulfill the principles of life as a whole or known as instinctive urges. According to Sumadi, Id is a biological aspect which is the original system in personality. Freud gave the term as the true psychic reality (the true psychic reality), because the id is a feeling within the individual (emotion) or subjective feeling of humans, and has no relationship with the objective world of life. In fact, the Id contains traits that are present or carried from birth, including instincts as reservoirs as psychic energy that moves the Ego and Superego. Bimo Walgito wrote that Id (Das Es), are impulses, desires for an object, where he demands to be able to fulfill these urges or desires.
- Ego (Das Ich)
After humans relate to their environment, the Ego arises which is located as part of the individual personality system/structure. Sumadi explains that “…Ego is a psychological aspect of personality and arises because of the organism’s need to be able to relate well to the real world (reality). Hungry people need to eat to relieve the tension that is in him. This means that organisms must be able to distinguish between delusions and fantasies about food.”
- Superego (das Ueber Ich).
The superego is one of the elements of morality and justice in human life. Abdul Aziz Ahyadi wrote that …in the personality structure of the superego is the result of his introduction to socio-cultural norms, so that it is closely related to morality and spiritual needs11 Sumadi writes that: In the personality structure of the Superego includes the sociological aspect of personality as an internal manifestation of traditional values and social values. As parents teach their children with various commands and prohibitions that must be carried out by individuals in life. The superego is more focused on perfection than the pleasures of life. In addition, the superego can also be considered as a moral aspect of personality which has a main function in determining good and bad, so that individuals uphold the morality of society.
With the explanation that has been presented, hopefully this will become new knowledge for all readers and give understanding that humans should respect each other to humans and other creatures because basically humans are given a gift by God in the form of reason which is assumed by Freud as the superego in humans.
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Sumadi Suryabrata, Psikologi Kepribadian, Jakarta: PT.Rajagrafindo Persada, 1995