To be able to be good parents for our children, it is necessary to have parenting knowledge that can be applied in the life of parenting. The rapidly developing technology in the world today, allows many parents to access various knowledge about parenting from anywhere, including the internet. One of the parenting sciences that can be applied in everyday life is psychology from Sigmund Freud. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory is a theory that seeks to explain the nature and development of personality (Syawal, 2016). In this theory, Freud also discusses the stages of a child in going through a period of personality development. Naturally. This can help parents to better understand the stages of personality development of a child. According to Freud, the individual personality has formed by the end of the fifth year, and its subsequent development is largely a refinement of that basic structure.

The five phases of personality development are as follows (Kuntojo, 2005:172-173):

STAGE 1 ORAL (age 0-1 years)

Babies only have an “id” or the principle of satisfaction/pleasure because they don’t have an ego and a superego

The consequences of “oral fixation” are:

  • Oral Aggressive: chews something like a pencil or fibrous shirt.
  • Oral Passive: smoking, drinking food, kissing.

Freud believed that a person in oral fixation may have a passive or manipulative personality.

STAGE 2 ANAL (1-3 years old)

At this time toilet training is the main thing to do. In this case it involves impulses from the id (to go to the bathroom) and ego (to not feel the shame of his pants filled with dirt).

STAGE 2 ANAL (1-3 years old)

At this time toilet training is the main thing to do. In this case it involves impulses from the id (to go to the bathroom) and ego (to not feel the shame of his pants filled with dirt).

STAGE 3 FALLIS (FOCUS TO GENITAL) (ages 3-6 years)

There is an Oedipus Complex where a boy sees his father as a rival for his mother’s attention. This was followed by the phenomenon of Castration Aniexty (fearing that the father would abuse him if he expressed jealousy.

Electa Complex occurs in girls. That is that a daughter will be attracted to her father and will see her mother as a rival. This is also influenced by the phenomenon of Penis Envy. That is the feeling of jealousy that occurs to girls because they don’t have penises like boys.

Freud believed that the Oedipus Comple and the Electra Complex would be pushed into the subconscious, which is why we didn’t think about it. However, this theory has received controversy because it has never been tested in research.

LATENT STAGE 4 (age 6- teens)

At this stage a person is no longer experiencing conflict within himself. A child will do what he loves, develop friendships, and grow. All forms of abnormal behavior can be based on previous developmental phases that are not perfect.

STAGE 5 GENITAL (teenage-adult age)

The psychological attitude of a person and his independent attitude comes from how his parents educated him in the previous stages of development.

With knowledge and education, it will arise in a person to compete and motivate ourselves to be better in all aspects of life. This also applies to parents and other educators who are also role models for children. Education in terms of psychoanalysis has a very broad understanding, referring to all actions taken by adults, experts or non-experts, teachers and parents, to shape and influence the behavior of children (students) who are growing in the desired way. By understanding the stages of child personality development, it is hoped that parents can better understand why children do certain things at their age. So that parents can guide their children to become someone with good qualities.


Anwar, K. 2014. Problematika Belajar dalam Perspektif Psikologi Pendidikan. Jurnal Pelopor Pendidikan, 6(2), 105—107.

Kuntojo. 2015. Psikologi perkembangan. Jogjakarta: Diction

Koeswara, E. 2001. Teori-teori Kepribadian. Bandung: PT Eresco.

Alwisol. 2005. Psikologi Kepribadian. Malang: Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

Syah, M. 2010. Psikologi Pendidikan dengan Pendekatan Baru. Bandung: Rosdakarya