In dealing with an illness, a person must expect to be cured. Various ways can be done to get healing, one of which is by doing drug therapy. Drug therapy is one of the most commonly used things to treat a disease in the medical world. By doing drug therapy, it is hoped that someone will soon find a cure. However, did you know that drugs in addition to having a good effect on the human body, also have unwanted effects that may arise when in drug therapy? Yes, basically the purpose of drug therapy is to poison viruses, bacteria or cells in the human body that cause illness. However, in some cases, a person can feel the unwanted effects of taking drugs or commonly referred to as drug side effects. In general, the effect is a change in the function of the structure or process as a result of drug action. Meanwhile, the effect of a drug is also known as the onset of action, which is the start of the drug’s action when the drug enters the plasma and ends until it reaches the minimum effective concentration (MEC = minimum effective concentration). So that drug side effects can be defined as physiological effects that are not related to the desired drug effect. All drugs have side effects, whether desired or not. Even with the right dose of medication, side effects can occur and can be predicted in advance. Side effects are mainly due to the lack of specificity of these drugs, such as bethanechol (Urecholine). Therefore, it is important for us to understand the effects of drugs.

In carrying out drug therapy, therapeutic doses can cause more than one kind of effect which is divided into primary and secondary effects (side effects). The main effect (primary) is an effect that is suitable for the purpose of treatment, for example morphine for pain relief. The main effect can cause secondary effects, namely unwanted effects and is the reaction of the organism (body) to the primary effect of the drug. For example, oral tertacycline can cause diarrhea. This happens because Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, in the gastrointestinal tract it kills the normal flora of the intestines which helps the normal function of digestion. If the normal intestinal flora is killed, the normal function of the gastrointestinal tract is disrupted, resulting in diarrhea. While side effects are effects that are not the main goal of treatment. This effect can be beneficial or detrimental depending on the condition and situation of the patient. All drugs have different side effects for each person. Along with the desired results, drugs can also cause unwanted side effects. Drug side effects can occur when starting a new medication, reducing or increasing the dose of a medication, or when you stop using it. All drugs used to treat all kinds of health conditions can cause side effects. Common side effects of the drug include nausea, vomiting, feeling tired, dizziness, dry mouth, headache, itching, and muscle aches.

Drugs have effects that can certainly have an impact on the human body, therefore we are not recommended to take drugs without a prescription or supervision from a doctor. Because it can cause the possibility of problems caused by taking drugs that are not as recommended. So, we must be wise in consuming drugs.

Reference :

Effendi (2011). Pedoman Interpretasi Data Klinik. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Nuryati. (2017). Farmakologi. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Rusli, S. A. (2018). Farmasi Klinik. Cetakan pertama, Agustus 2018, 8-181.

Zhafira D. Kajian Penggunaan Obat Neuroprotektif pada Pasien Stroke Iskemik di Instalasi Rawat Inap Neurologi RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. [Skripsi]. Padang : Universitas Andalas Padang; 2018.