“Saat ini tumpukan sampah tak hanya terlihat di kawasan tempat pembuangan akhir Suwung, Denpasar Selatan, melainkan juga melebar ke sejumlah ruang kosong di sejumlah kawasan… Dalam sehari, sampah yang masuk ke TPA Suwung mencapai 1000 – 1200 ton. Saat hari – hari raya besar, sampah yang masuk bahkan biasa mencapai 1500 ton.” (Bali Post, edisi 6 – 12 Maret 2017) “Currently the heap of rubbish is not only seen in the area of Suwung landfill in South Denpasar but it also extends to a number of vacant number in a number of areas… within a day, garbage that goes to Suwung landfill reach 1000-1200 ton. When it is a major holidays, the income could go up to 1500 tons.” (Bali Post, edition 6-12 March 2017)

1. Introduction
Garbage has been a popular topic, a simple problem with complex solutions. There have been huge interventions done by government addressing this problem. Indonesian law afirms that everyone should reduce garbage 1 and doing a right management of the garbage.2 The law also rules that the producer needs to reduce anything results in garbage and use degradable packaging.3 Provinces also have to
produce clear solutions to garbage problems. 4 One of the solutions government

1 Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No.81 tahun 2012, chapter 10. See also Peraturan
Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No. 81 tahun 2012, chapter 11. We can do reducing by limiting
the source of the garbage, recycling and reusing them. To limit the source is to use things that
could be reused, recycled and / or could be decomposed.
2 Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No. 81 tahun 2012, chapter 10. See also Peraturan
Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No. 81 tahun 2012, chapter 16. We can manage them by sorting,
collecting, transporting and processing.
3 Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No. 81 tahun 2012, chapter 12.
4 Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, No. 81 tahun 2012, pasal 9 ayat 2. It is stated that all
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produced is generating methane gas from plastics and convert them to biogas. The
result has been tested while the organic waste is used for fertilizers.5
Yet, the problem of garbage is still consistenly increasing anywhere. Hence
government announce classifications of garbage that are allowed to be thrown to the
landfill. Based on Perda Bali No. 5, Tahun 2011, there are three types of garbage6
allowed to be thrown in the landfill of TPA Suwung.
7 Those are garbages from
households, 8
garbages that are like households
and specific garbages.
10 The
dangerous garbages from hospitals like broken apparatures, garbage from meats,
prawns and other expired items, broken tires, used rubber and others that are easily
burnt, all sorts of carcasses and feces11 has been restricted from TPA Suwung (See
Graph 1).

province has to make a main plan that consist of limitation of producing garbage, recycling the
garbage, reusing the garbage, sorting the garbage, amount of collection of the garbage,
transporting the garbage, garbage processing, final garbage processing and the garbage funding.
5 An interview with Mr. Anak Agung Gede Januarimbawa, the head of the office. Conducted on
March 2nd, 2017.
6 Peraturan Daerah Provinsi Bali No. 5 tahun 2011, pasal 2 ayat 2 – 4.
7 Undang – Undang No. 18 tahun 2008, pasal 2 ayat 1.
8 Undang – Undang No. 18 tahun 2008, pasal 2 ayat 2. Household’s garbage that produced from
everyday activities.
9 Undang – Undang No. 18 tahun 2008, pasal 2 ayat 3. The garbage that is similar to the
households is a garbage that was used for commercial area, industrial needs, social facilities,
public facilities and/or other facilities.
10 Undang – Undang No. 18 tahun 2008, pasal 2 ayat 4. Specific garbage is a garbage that contains
dangerous and poisonous contents, contains wastes that is dangerous and poisonous, garbage that
can cause natural disaster, demolition of buildings, garbage that still can’t be destroyed by
technology and garbage that occurs in non – periodic ways.
11 Bank Data Kota Denpasar, Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA) pdf, 1.
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Graph 1. Statistic data of wastes in TPA Suwung on 2016
Source: Tribun Bali, 29 May 201612
Seeing the Graph above, we can conclude that waste from office is the least (6%)
at TPA Suwung. Next least is wet plastics with the percentage of 10.94%. The most
waste found is 74% percent, which is waste from farm. Graph 1 also shows the fact
that plastic has a quite low percentage while most waste campaigns focus on antiplastic campaign. Although it may seem that the mountain of waste is mostly filled
with plastics, data shows that it is the third lowest waste category (See Appendix 1,
Map of Suwung Landfill)
Not only government works for this problem seriously, society also response
well by lots of movements arise for waste managements. One of the movement in
Bali, called One Island One Voice recently gathered 12.000 volunteers joins to clean
up the garbage in the beach, collecting 40 tons from 55 location.13 Unfortunately, it

12 Tribun Bali, “4 Tahun Lagi TPA Suwung Tak Bisa Muat Sampah”, accessed from
accessed on 3, March 2017.
13 Thomas Wright, “Commentary: Indonesia Vows to Tackle Marine Pollution”, access from
http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/commentary-indonesia-vows-to-tackle11% 20%
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seems that this actions bring no result for a long term.
Another example is garbage management in CH. There is an effort to
separate non-organic and organic garbage. Every morning, the dead leaves are placed
near the trees for fertilizers and food scraps are given to the dogs for their food.
Argumentatively, it does not give any long term significant result to the problem of
garbage in Bali (See Appendix 2, Counting Amount of Garbage from CH Using
Linear Equation of Two Variables). Based on the patterned way on managing garbage,
there is a probability that the problem of garbage will be bigger (See Table 1).
Table 1. Probability of Garbage Management
Year Recycled
to fertilizer
to the
to the
or the
2012 1.67 2.94 87.74 13.34 5.23 23.28 4.63 3.86
2013 5.29 16.65 84.26 77.39 66.76 209.52 42.42 59.5
2014 0.19 0.53 23.25 0.50 3.58 54.65 5.54 9.39
Total 7.15 20.12 192.25 91.23 75.57 287.45 52.59 72.75
Source: Data Analysis Using Probability Formula (See Appendix 3)
The table above shows that garbage tends to be burnt rather than recycled. The next
probability is to be brought to the landfill rather than converted to fertilizer.
Based on the rationale behind the data and phenomena, it could be argued
that solutions taken by the government and society did not solve the root of the
problem. This paper aims to investigate the root of the problem of the never ending
problem of waste management and to propose possible solutions to this problem. We
also approach the problem of garbage scientifically using perspectives of subjects that

marine-pollution/3581498.html, accessed on March 10, 2017.
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we have learnt in Grade 7 and 8, making an analysis and propose solutions based on
the approaches above, datas and some theories.
2. A Secondary-1 Approach to the Problems of Garbage
In this section, we try to explore the problem of waste using the topics learnt
in Secondary-1 Cendekia Harapan. We claim that garbage bring worries and hopes. It
brings worries due to the unhealthy effects on the environment and brings hopes
because of the opportunities and possibilities raised in digging this problem.
2.1. Worries: Back to the Future (Part 1)
Beauty of Indonesia attracts big countries. The Netherlands came to
Indonesia for the herbs because Indonesia was so rich in herbs. Intrinsically, they
were motivated with 3G (Gold, Glory and Gospel). They seek gold and other
precious metals for their own advantages,14 Glory to hunt for superiority,15 and
spread their religion which was Christianity. 16 The story of the richness of
Indonesia was so attractive to the colonialist countries. Besides The Netherlands,
other countries like Spain and Portugal and also England were coming for the
richness of Indonesia. All of those countries tried to colonialize Indonesia. The
effort of the Indonesian people on sovereigning was not easy. They all had to
face the harshness of the way colonialist country treat them. But the colonialist

14 Muhammad Nuh, Sejarah Indonesia, (Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,
2014), 9.
15 Ibid, 9.
16 Ibid, 9.
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countries had lots of strategies to colonialize Indonesia.17 This story shows the
shows the attractiveness of Indonesia.18

17 Anwar Kurnia, Sejarah 2, (Unknown: Ghalia Indonesia, 2013), 6, 10, 11, 12, 19, 21, 36. See
also Muhammad Nuh, Sejarah Indonesia, (Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,
2014), 39. After VOC dispersed the organization, the Netherlands had problems with the England
on conquering Indonesia. The Netherlands were worried so they put up a trustable man to be the
governor which was H.W. Daendals. He was kind enough to give the Indonesia citizen some
motivation to have the sense of independence, equality and fraternity. But again for its own
advantage. So then, Raden Rangga, a king who got tired of Daendals’s act (who was os mean to
them), have tried to act against Daendals but with much more advanced weapon, Raden Rangga
died in the battle. But then, Daendals was sent back to the Netherlands and the England took over.
There was a lot of pulling by the Netherlands and the England. But in the end, the England made
a decision that they will not take Indonesia anymore and handed to the Netherlands on 1816. Few
years later van den Bosch took over as the governor and made an idea called Cultuur stelsel on
1830. Cultuur stelsel is an idea to force to make the citizens pay the tax by giving all their
resources from their farm. But there was one who didn’t want the citizens to face the Cultuur
stelsel, which was Douwess Dekker or Multatuli. He critiqued about the Cultuur stelsel and wrote
a book called Max Havelaar stating that it has made citizens in Indonesia suffers a lot because of
the way the Netherlands treat them. After hearing the news, the Netherlands erase Cultuur stelsel
from Indonesia on 1870. While the Cultuur stelsel was going on, there were a lot of heroes
defending their own birth place. One hero who defended Indonesia was called Pangeran (or
prince in Indonesian) Diponegoro. His real name was Raden Mas Ontowiryo and was born on 11
November 1785. He was the oldest son of Sultan Hamengkubowo III and was told to take his
place but Diponegoro said no and moved to Tegalrojo with his grandmother. When the
Netherlands went to make a road above the grave of Diponegoro’s ancestors, he went in rage and
started to take off the pegs and changed it to spears. Since the Netherlands attacked Diponegoro,
he attacked back and won a lot of the battles. But in the end, he was tricked and was sent to
Manado first and was placed again to Makkasar. He died on 1855 in Makkasar. With these hard
times, we can say that Indonesia was super hard to get.
18 Ibid, 17, 23 and 31. Few years later, the Netherlands came back with in charge of van
Heemskerck and this time, they controlled their emotions and get very well along with the citizens
of Indonesia. After getting along, they started to make an organization called VOC (Vereenigde
Oost Indische Compagnie) where they have the job to: do a monopoly of trade in the region
between Tanjung Harapan (a cape in Jakarta) to the Strait of Magellan, including the
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
Looking at the problem of garbage, we can scientifically claim that

archipelago,form its own army, do battle, make an agreement with the local kings, printing and
issuing its own money, hiring employee and reigning in colony. But because VOC had bankruptcy,
they disperse the organization on 1799.
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garbage affects human body system,19 plants20 and animals.21 When the soil

19 Rachael Rettner, “The Human Body: Anatomy, Facts and Function”, access from
http://www.livescience.com/37009-human-body.html, accessed on March 6, 2017. There are 11
major systems in our body. The first one is the circulatory system. Circulatory system has the role
to deliver bloods to other body parts and carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones and carbon dioxide.
It contains heart, veins, artery and vessels. The second is the respiratory system where it function
to help us breath in oxygen and breath out carbon dioxide. The organs needed are nose, trachea
and lungs. Next is the digestive system where the foods we eat become smaller through this
system to give nutrients and minerals to our body. This system contains mouth, esophagus,
stomach, large intestine, small intestine, pancreas, liver, rectum and anus. The fourth one is the
immune system where it function to protect body from bacteria and viruses. It is mostly found in
white blood cells. The fifth is the lymphatic system which includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts
and lymph vessels, and also plays a role in the body’s defenses. Its main job is to make and move
lymph, a clear fluid that contains white blood cells, which help the body fight infection. The next
system is the nervous system where it controls our body to move our body parts like hands, feet
and lungs to breathe. It includes brain and spinal cords to work the system. Next is the endocrine
system where hormones travels around to different tissues such as metabolism, growth and sexual
function. Next, our body needs the “basic” to shape us. The “basic” is called the skeletal system,
which consists of 206 bones that are connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The skeleton
not only helps us move, but it is also involved in the production of blood cells and the storage of
calcium. The teeth are also part of the skeletal system, but they are not as considered bones. The
body, of course is covered with “meat” and skin. The muscular system consists of about 650
muscles that aid in movement, blood flow and other bodily functions. There are three types of
muscle: skeletal muscle which is connected to bone and helps with voluntary movement, smooth
muscle which is found inside organs and helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac
muscle which is found in the heart and helps pump blood. To cover the “meat”, the skin, or
integumentary system, protects us from the outside world, and is our first defense against bacteria,
viruses and other pathogens. Our skin also helps regulate body temperature and in addition to skin,
the integumentary system includes hair and nails. The tenth major system is the reproductive
system where allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system includes the penis and
the testes, which produce sperm. The female reproductive system consists of the vagina, the uterus
and the ovaries, which produce eggs. During conception, a sperm grows in the egg and form a
baby inside the uterus. The last but not least is the urinary system. The urinary system does no
locate in the same area as the reproduction system. The urinary system is the place where wastes
from our body gather and eliminate out of the body. The system includes 2 kidney, 2 ureters,
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
got affected by garbage, plants and animals will be affected too. In this sense, it

bladder, 2 sphincter muscle and urethra. Some of these major system can be damaged by the
garbage and dirty environment. Because we breathe in dirty air, there will be less oxygen that we
breathe in. So that the blood inside our body will carry dirty air which will make the circulatory
system clogged to the thickness of the blood. Even though there is liver to clean up the blood but
with more dirty air inside the blood, the more dirty the liver will be and would damage the liver.
20 Montessori for Everyone, “All about plants”, access from
accessed on March 6, 2017. See also Unknown, “Animal Kingdom Classification”, access from
http://biology.tutorvista.com/organism/animal-kingdom-classification.html, accessed on March 6,
2017. Plants are living things that are made up of cells and needs air, water, root, soil, and sunlight
to live. They cannot move from place to place, but their leaves move to catch the sun and their
roots move towards water. They don’t reproduce like us as they need help from the animals or the
wind to spread their seed to other places. The plants includes: flowers, fruits, vegetables, seeds,
nuts, stems, and leaves. Some plants give us medicine, and trees are used to make paper and
furniture. The plants are divided to 2 main kingdom which are the vascular kingdom and the non
– vascular kingdom. The vascular kingdom is the kingdom where there are seeds, lot of leaves,
branches and others in the plants while the non – vascular kingdom is the kingdom where there is
no branches, seeds and leaves like mosses. In the vascular kingdom, there are flowering plants
and non – flowering plants. Flowering plants are divided to 2 which are dicot and monocot. Dicot
grows first with two leaves (two seed leaf) meanwhile monocot grows first with one leaf (one
seed leaf). As the plants provide us oxygen, we need plants in our life. But if the land that the
plant is supposed to be planted is covered by the garbage, they would not grow healthily. If they
do not grow healthily, animals won’t to.
21 Unknown, “Animal Kingdom Classification”, access from
http://biology.tutorvista.com/organism/animal-kingdom-classification.html, accessed on March 6,
2017. Animals in the other hand, moves on their own and find food on their own. They are
classified to 2 classes which are the protozoa (unicellular) and metozoa (multicellular). From
metazoan, there is another classification which are vertebrates (with backbone) and invertebrates
(without backbones). Examples of vertebrates are reptiles, amphibians, birds, mammals and fishes.
Meanwhile the examples of invertebrates are sponges, worms, arthropods, mollusks, coelenterates
and echinoderms.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
also affects the ecology22 and finally affects the mother earth.23
There are several problems garbages bring to the environment. One of
the problems is the chemical materials of garbage. For example micro-plastic24

22 Education and Diversity, “What ecology has to do with me?”, access from
accessed on March 6, 2017. Ecology is a study of a relationship between living organism like
animals and human, human and plants, plants and animals and others. Ecology also provides about
different size of organism, how they affect us, the study about ecosystem and how we can use
earth’s resource wisely so we can leave the same amount we use for the next future generation.
23 NASA, “All About Earth”, access from https://spaceplace.nasa.gov/all-about-earth/en/,
accessed on March 6, 2017. See also Juwaria Muqtadir, Rocks and soil, Science lesson.
Conducted on January 2016, National Geographic, “Rocks”, access from
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/inside-the-earth/rocks/, accessed on March 6,
2017, Life without Plastic, “The Plastic Problem”, accessed from
https://www.lifewithoutplastic.com/store/the_plastic_problem#.WMD03qK4202, accessed on
March 9, 2017. These all living things live on mother earth. Earth is the 3rd planet from the sun
and is a rocky, terrestrial planet. Earth’s atmosphere is made mostly of nitrogen and has plenty of
oxygen for humans to breathe. Earth take 24 hours to rotate itself, 365 days to rotate on its axes
and has 1 moon. Earth has its own layer. From the deep it is the inner core, outer core, mantle and
the crusts. Soils is the main ground of earth. There are a lot of type’s soils. There are humus /
organic (the organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves), topsoil (layer of
soil nearest the surface), eluvium (the ecological deposits and soils that are derived by weathering
plus gravitational movement), subsoil (the soil lying immediately below the soil), parent material
(the underlying geological material) and bedrock (unbroken solid rock, overlaid in most places
by soil or rock fragments). Other than soils, rocks are covering the ground too. Rocks are majorly
classified to three which it includes igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous is a rock that
is formed by the molten material like lava and magma like obsidian and granite. Next is the
sedimentary rock where it is formed by fragments of other rocks and fossils are usually found.
Sandstone and limestone are an example of sedimentary rocks. The last but not least is the
metamorphic rock where it is formed by sedimentary or igneous rock been pressured, heat or
intrusion of fluids. Marble is one of the metamorphic rocks.
24 Microplastics come from a variety of sources, including from larger plastic debris that degrades
into smaller and smaller pieces. It also comes from microbeads, which are very tiny pieces of
manufactured polyethylene plastic that are added as exfoliates to health and beauty products, such
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pollution in the sea. The animals were harmed by the micro plastic which will
cause physical distress and even death.25 Unbelievably, human may eat 11.000
particles of micro plastic from seafood.26
Due to problems above, it could be argued that the beauty of Indonesia27
will relatively begin to fade. Countries come not for the beauty of Indonesia
anymore but enterprises come to gain interest because of the big population in
Indonesia. The investment opportunity in Indonesia is nowadays interesting
because of the total number of people and consumers behaviors.28
Since Indonesia is a good choice for investment, there are several

as some cleansers and toothpastes.
25 The Royal Society of Chemistry, “The Massive Problem of Micro plastic.” Access from
https://eic.rsc.org/feature/the-massive-problem-of-microplastics/2000127.article, accessed on,
March 12, 2017.
26 Ibid.
27 Drs. Sugiharyanto, M. Si., Geografi & Sosiologi 2, (Jakarta: Quadra, 2013), 4. See also Rohana,
dkk, IPS Terpadu 2, (Unknown: Quadra, 2014), 63, Dickson, “Negara – negara yang terletak di
Garis Khatulistiwa”, access from http://ilmupengetahuanumum.com/negara-negara-yangterletak-di-garis-khatulistiwa/, accessed on March 7, 2017, TNI Kuta Selatan, Wawasan
Kebangsaan, Special lesson. Conducted on February 2017, Pemerintah Provinsi Bali, Geographi,
access from http://www.baliprov.go.id/v1/geographi, access on January 24, 2017. Topographi,
access from http://www.baliprov.go.id/v1/topographi, accessed on January 25, 2017. Indonesia
has three types of climates (rainforest, tropical monsoon and savanna). These climate makes
Indonesia unique in a beautiful nature. Rainforest climate, monsoon climate and the savanna
climate is recognized to be providing a good quality for the plants and the animals. Indonesia is
lucky since it is located in the equator line where these three climates occur. This makes the beauty
of Indonesia cannot be explained by words. With 17.499 islands, Indonesia is not a great country
but a beautiful country for living.
28 Naomi Rovnick, “Why Indonesia is an exciting market for foreign investors, and also one of
the perilious.” Accessed from https://qz.com/59866/why-indonesia-is-an-exciting-market-forforeign-investors-and-also-one-of-the-most-perilous/, accessed on March 12, 2017.
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reasons that the investors agreed on. Fast growing economy and the consumers
behavior in Indonesia are attractive now for the capitalist. There are 60 percent
of the population that gives this country a large bank earner. Also, there are more
young workers than the old workers. It is also shown that even though the
citizens may be poor or live in relative poverty, they have an optimism about the
future that they will spend whatever on what they want.29
These changes of environment caused by the garbage will have different
and significant effects on the changes of natural resources. It means in the future,
Indonesia might perform differently based on the environment condition. By

29 Worldometer, “Indonesia Population (2017)”, access from www.worldometers.info/worldpopulation/indonesia-population/, accessed on March 5, 2017. See also, World Population Review,
“Indonesia Population”, access from http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/indonesiapopulation/, accessed on March 5, 2017, Rohana dkk, IPS Terpadu, (unknown: Quadra, 2014), 52
– 53. The total population of Indonesia is currently 262,560,875 people meanwhile in Bali is
834,881 people. The population in Indonesia in 1961 was 97 million. But after 49 years later, the
population increased to 237.6 million (See Appendix 4). If the occurrence of overpopulation
increases, there will be some issues like the destruction of forests, agricultural land increasingly
narrow, air pollution, land degradation due to erosion of landslides. But the growing of the
population is not the problem. The problems caused by the growth are the real problems, such as:
overpopulation, unstable growth and population quality. Overpopulation happens when the
citizens on the Earth increase and not in accordance with the space. The more human or a certain
animal species, indicates that the pollution is larger than the specified capacity. Unstable growth
is the increasement of citizens in Indonesia growing uneven. More than (57%) of Indonesia’s
population lives in Java which has an area of only 7% of Indonesia. To overcome the uneven
population can be done by doing transmigration. Population quality problems is the problem of
education and health issues. Indonesia is still low in the level of education. To see the quality of
the population we can to see the level of health. To see the level of health, we need to see the rate
of the infant mortality and the life expectancy. If the infant mortality rate is higher than the age of
the life expectancy, the level of health is low. Government is helping improve the level of health
by establishing health posts, water supply, building health centers and hospitals and others.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
seeing this finding, government and society might predict the risk of garbage to
the environment and anticipate the problem arise in the future of Indonesia.
Beside the impacts to the environment, it would bring impact to the
society. One of the impact that we worry is the conflict of interest in managing
the garbage. There is a probability that the corruption is growing due to the big
amount of money allocated to garbage management. Individual health and wellbeing will also be agitated, hence the society will be ill and not united as one.
2.2. Hopes: Back to the Future (Part 2)
Apart from worries above, we would like to bring up some hopes. The
complexity of the issue of garbage is being responded by the government
through laws and institutions. 30 In Indonesia, there are several institutions.
There are People’s Consultative Assembly, 31 House of Representatives, 32
Regional Representatives Council, 33 President, 34 Financial Representative

30 Sri Tutik Cahyaningsih, Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan (Jakarta: Penerbit
Erlangga, 2013), 30-41.
31 Ibid, 30-41. People’s Consultative Assembly consist of House of Representatives and Regional
Representatives Council. People’s Consultative Assembly changes and determine the constitution
and inaugurate president/ vice president.
32 Ibid, 30-41. House of Representatives have an amount of 560 of people as the member. Their
function is to form legislation which will be discussed with the President and to set the state
budget with the President by taking consideration of Regional Representatives Council.
33 Ibid, 30-41. Regional Representatives Council consist of representatives of provincial. Their
function is to give consideration to the House of Representatives in the election of the Financial
Representative Body and to receive the results of the state financial from the Financial
Representative Body.
34 Ibid, 30-41. President have the power of 3 heads. The head of state, head of government and
the power of the legislative branch and the executive. Head of State is the one that calls on war
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Body,35 Supreme Court,36 Constitutional Court and the Judicial Commission.37
In the other side, social institutions like family institution, religion institution,
economy institution, education institution, culture institution and politic
institution also has the role to handle any problems that occurs in the society.38

and make peace against other countries. Head of Government is the one that holds power on the
Government according to the constitution of 1945 and appoint and dismiss ministers. Power of
the legislative branch and the executive is the one that establish the government rules.
35 Sri Tutik Cahyaningsih, Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan (Jakarta: Penerbit
Erlangga, 2013), 30-41. Financial Representative Body is the one that supervise and inspect the
36 Ibid, 30-41. Supreme Court hears and determine a dispute about jurisdiction to try a case.
37 Ibid, 30-41. Constitutional Court consist of 9 members that is established by the President. The
dissolution of political parties are done by the Constitutional Court and they also decide the result
of general election. Judicial Commission is the one that establish the nominees or candidates.
38 Eddy Strada, “Jenis jenis Lembaga Sosial”, accessed http://rppsmp.blogspot.co.id/2014/10/jenis-jenis-lembaga-sosial.html, accessed on March 6, 2017. Those
problems might be solved by the intervention of institution of Indonesia. There are six institutions
from social institution. First, Family Institution: Family is the smallest unit in the society. Family
is created from a valid marriage that has went on a journey through religion, tradition and the
government. But as time pass by, the concept of family is changing. In general, a family consist
of a parents and a child. Yet, the member in a family has increased. Other than that, a family do
not have to be related by blood and many family adopt kids but still they call themselves family.
That is the beauty of family. Second, Religion Institution: Religion Institution is an institution that
arrange the life of the society that has a relation between their religious lives. Religion is the one
that shows between the good and bad, the allowed and the prohibited, or the life of this world or
the afterworld. Religion Institution is an organization that was made by the religious people to
introduce the importance of religion. The purpose is to improve the quality of the religious life of
every religion. Third, Economy Institution: Economy Institution is an institution that work in
fields that fulfill the human needs. Economy Institution is born as a business so that the human
could adjust themselves in nature to fulfill their needs. According to Article 33 in UUD 1945,
there are 3 economy institutes in Indonesia: Koperasi, Badan Usaha Milik Negara (BUMN) and
Badan Usaha Milik Swasta (BUMS). Fourth, Educational Institution: According to the
Constitution No. 20 about the System of the National Education, education is a conscious and
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There is a hope in such culture that is keeping the society grows and
civilized. The role of the culture itself may able to control the problems.39 The
example of the rules from culture and religion includes faith and fear of God
almighty, pray to the God almighty, and being kind one another, love the nature
and help each other.40 Indonesia has more than 100 cultures. Those cultures may
have different languages and traditions.41 In Bali, the culture itself is unique,
from their names to their beliefs.42
In Bali, there is a strong relationship between culture and religion. Most
of the culture concept is accepted as the concept of religion. The religion in Bali
is dominantly Hinduism. To understand the cultural response to the problem of
garbage, we can track by reading the Holy book of Hindu. Here are two citations

deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners are
actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual power of religion, self-control,
personality, intelligence, character, and skills needed for him, society, nation and state.
Educational Institution is a institute that on goes the proses of education that is done to change
their behavior of an individual towards a better road. Fifth, Culture Institution: Culture Institution
is a public institution in a country whose role is in the development of culture, science,
environment, arts, and education in the communities that exist in a region or country. There are
some kinds of culture institution. For example: Community arts and culture, environmental
conservation organizations, the scientific community, printed and electronic media. Sixth, Politic
Institution: Politics is the process of formation and distribution of power in society which, among
other tangible decision-making process, especially in the country. Political institutions are
growing in Indonesia is set in the Act of 1945.
39 It is controlled by the rule from the religion.
40 Martiyono, PPKn 1: Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewarganegaraan, (Unknown: Quadra, 2016),
41 TNI Kuta Selatan, Kawasan Kebangsaan, Special lesson. Conducted on February 22, 2017.
42 Clifford Geertz, Interpretation of Culture, (New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1973),
368. Their name is long since it consists of their personal names, birth order names, kinship terms,
teknonyms, status titles and public titles.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
from the Holy Book of Hindu:
“Inndraa ya dyaava osadhir uta aapah. Rayim raksanti jirayo vanani.”
In RgVeda, III.51.5
“Prthivim drmha, Prthivim ma himsih.”
In Mait ra yani Samhita, II.8.14
The first verse stated that human should not pollute the atmosphere, plants, river,
water resources and the jungle because all of these are the protector of the
richness of the nature that is unbelievably a lot. The second citation stated that
humans who supposed to care about the nature should not pollute it. These
articles can be achieved by following the Tri Hita Karana where humans should
build, take care and secure the environment as a balance implementation and
responsibility between humans and nature.43
Other hope is sourced on the advance in science and technology.
Currently, there is a biodegradable plastics that is made by bio – based polymer
that could lead to improve bio degradability.44 There is also a way on changing
bamboo chopstick to carbon fibers for LIBs (Li –ion Batteries).45 From the

43 Ketut Gunawan, “Pengelolaan Sampah Sebagai Implementasi Falsafah Tri Hita Karana”,
Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Panji Sakti Singaraja, 2011, page. 5 – 6.
44 The Royal Society of Chemistry, “The Massive Problem of Micro plastic.” Access from
https://eic.rsc.org/feature/the-massive-problem-of-microplastics/2000127.article, accessed on,
March 12, 2017.
45 The Royal Society of Chemistry, “Evolution of Disposable Bamboo into Uniform Carbon
Fibers: a smart strategy to fabricate sustainable anodes for Li-ion batteries”, access from
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2014/ee/c4ee00602j, accessed on March 12, 2017.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
bamboo chopstick, the natural cellulose fiber is been separated and then be
brought to be extracted then to a carbonization process. So that the electrode
performance of carbon fibers can be optimize by growing nanostructed metal
oxides which leads to the formation of an appealing 3D synergetic core- shell
electrode architecture.46
Another way is converting the garbage to electricity. The first step is to
sort the garbage to recyclable garbage and non – recyclable garbage. The nonrecyclable garbage will then be put in to the incinerator to be burned.47 The
garbage will be burned in the temperature of above 1300°C. The smoke from the
garbage will then activates the turbine to generate the electricity generator. So
then the electricity will be formed but not directly. On the other hand, the ashes
that came from the garbage will be converted to blocks and other things that will
be needed on making buildings and has the same quality as the normal blocks.48
It is clear that Indonesia has passed many turbulences as a country to
get dignity as a respected country. Heroic story on defending the freedom of
Indonesia is one of the big thing that unite us as a country.49

46 Ibid.
47 Alpensteel, “~ (PLTSa) PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SAMPAH”, access from
http://www.alpensteel.com/article/56-110-energi-sampah–pltsa/2594–pltsa-pembangkit-listriktenaga-sampah?format=pdf, accessed on March 12, 2017.
48 Alpensteel, “~ (PLTSa) PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SAMPAH”, access from
http://www.alpensteel.com/article/56-110-energi-sampah–pltsa/2594–pltsa-pembangkit-listriktenaga-sampah?format=pdf, accessed on March 12, 2017.
49 Anwar Kurnia, Sejarah 2, (Unknown: Ghalia Indonesia, 2013), 73. For all these years, the
Netherlands conquered Indonesia for almost 350 years. But even after the Japan drive the
Netherlands away, the Japan still tries to make Indonesia their country. But they give them a
chance to sovereign by making an organization called BPUPKI (Badan Penyelidik Usaha – Usaha
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
3. Discussion and Analysis
Reading government documents and plans and looking around to the society
who are passionate to clean up the beaches, we may see that one of the dominant
solutions proposed nowadays could be seen using a relation and function formula (See
Image 1). The picture below shows that when a garbage is produced, there comes the
cycle. A certain product is produced and human consume it. That is shown in picture
x. Then the product would not be needed any more so it will be a garbage (See picture
y for this). On making a new product, using the recycling way, garbage will be
produced from the remains (See picture z).

Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia). They held two meetings that time. The first time (29 Mei –
1 June 1945) was about their problem regarding to make the base of the country and the second
time (10 – 16 July 1945) was about making the Constitution or laws. After the aim was reached,
they change the name BPUPKI to PPKI (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia). When the
Hiroshima and Nagasaki was bombed by the Americans since the Japan bombed Pearl Harbor,
the Japan retreat to their home country after Indonesia sovereign. The Netherlands came back to
try conquering Indonesia. Indonesia had a hard time to drive the Netherlands away. They had a
lot of conference and made a lot of promises but they did not work well so there was a lot of
battles. See also Juwaria Muqtadir, Proses terbentuknya NKRI, Social Science lesson. Conducted
on 2016. It all started when the Portuguese first came to Indonesia on 1488 and the Spain came
on 1521 although Indonesia was already conquered by the Portuguese. But then the Netherlands
came on 1596 with in charge of Cornelius De Houtman after both Portuguese and Spain moved
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
Image 1. Recycling cycle using relation and function
Source: Analysis Using Relation and Function
The picture above shows big irrationality on garbage management. It seems that
recycling the garbage (and reuse or reduce) is the purpose of garbage management.
But as the picture shows that when new products (which is the result of recycle
activities) is produced, there must be remained garbage in the process (See Picture z).
When human buy them, a new garbage is formed. Every time we consume a product,
we produce another garbage which will produce another garbage and another and
another. It never ends. Triggered by this, we are interesting to give some critical
response due to the garbage management in Bali.
The existing institution is perfectly good as they work well on their plan. But
without their self-conscious, the case of corruption, unfinished projects will happen.
This case brings us new problems rather cleaning the garbage, they are busy trying to
blame on others and looking for corruptors.
Besides the social institution, there is an optimism to tackle the problem of
garbage using technologies. The consumer will be keep on consuming things and
A`+ GA`
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
producing garbage because the technologies is there to clean up the mess. One example
is making degradable plastic that many people think will help the earth. But infect it
will make them throw the plastic freely.
Seeing the impossibility of the garbage decreasing using technologies and
social institution, we may learn from the experience of Japan. Japan is a well-known
cleanest country. It is shown by the history that when the income speeds up, the more
garbage is been produced and with the fast growing economy, there must be more
garbage.50 Also with bigger demands on consuming things, the producer will have to
make more products where garbage’s would increase.51
In this case, we arrive in one solution that might be interesting. The more
producer make things and the more citizens buy it without having the intentions to use
it. When that product is not needed anymore, it becomes garbage. So that the amount
of garbage will not decrease even though we recycle it. One of the possible solution is
“Zero Waste Life”, which is proposed by Lauren Singer.
Zero Waste Life aims to less produce or no trash at all.52 Producing no trash is
not easy. Most of our everyday needs are covered with plastic. Our toothbrush,
toothpaste, deodorant. Lauren Singer decided not to produce any plastic so that she
started to learn on how to make her own toothpaste, deodorant, lotion.53
“No sending anything to landfill, no throwing anything in a trash can, nothing,”

50 Ministry of the Environment, History & Current State of Waste Management in Japan, (Tokyo:
Ministry of the Environment, 2014), 5.
51 Ibid, 8.
52 Hailey Reissman, “Spotlight Tedx Talk: Why I live a zero waste life”, access from,
accessed on March 10, 2017.
53 Ibid.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
Lauren Singer stated.54 She is an Environmental Studies major in her college.55 She
had started living Zero Waste since college years and it has been three years since then.
Her three years rubbish could fit a small jar. Lauren Singer had shown us on how to
live happier, save money and reduce plastic waste.
To start a Zero Waste Life, we can start by stop buying packaged food and start
buying from food markets where you can pick your own food with your own bag. Next
is to make your own product. Like toothpaste, deodorant and lotion. Third, is to shop
downsize. Shopping downsize means shopping things that are used already. By doing
these steps, we could reduce the amount of plastic produced every day and also it saves
money. Making your own product also saves your money and shopping second-hand
downsize means buying clothes that are reused clothes. Reused clothes are usually
cheaper than in the mall. Say no to trash, send nothing to the landfill and to the garbage
Zero Waste Life is a perfect and wonderful life human could live. When we
live a Zero Waste Life, there is so many advantages like saving money, reduce garbage,
live a happy life by consuming healthy products. But of course, on consuming products,
there will always be packaging made of plastic from the healthy product which then
will go to the trash bin and sent to the landfill. If we still consume these product without
being conscious, Zero Waste Life is impossible.

54 Lauren Singer, “Trash if for Tossers”, access from,
http://www.trashisfortossers.com/p/about.html, accessed on March 10, 2017.
55 Ibid.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
4. Proposed Solutions
The problems are now clear yet still needs an approach. According to the
Holy Bible, it is written in Genesis 2:15 that God himself gave an instruction to Adam.
He told him to care for the garden that He have made. The Lord God took the man
and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it.56 There had already
been 19,448 cases of animal abuse and a lot of pollution produced. 57 Man is
misunderstanding the lessons. We are supposed to take care of nature, not take control
over it. God has made human and nature in the same level. From this, it lead us to
Aldo Leopold and Arne Naess’s thinking. Both thinkers argued that keeping the
environment will be possible if the human can think like a mountain and interact with
the nature harmoniously.
a. A Sand County Almanac: A Dream of a Beautiful World
The problem are not in the materials but in the behavior of human.
(See Appendix 5. Types of Human Behavior according to Immanuel Kant and
Sigmund Freud). One of the big novelist, Leopold wrote in his book, titled, A
Sand County Almanac, in which he tells us that human and nature is in the
same level.
Leopold was once in the mountains when he shot a female wolf. He
got to the female wolf just in time to see a fiery green fire dying in her eyes.
A green fire that no one will understand better than herself. A green fire in

56 Holy Bible, Genesis 2:15
57 Jonas Martonas, “Effect of Human Activities on the Environment”, access from,
http://education.seattlepi.com/effect-human-activities-environment-3653.html, accessed on
March 8, 2017.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
which belongs to the female wolf and the mountain.
In his book, Leopold describes and tries to show us on what we do not
know about the nature. In the very beginning of the book, he describes the
animal and how they live in their environment. He talks about them as if they
were friends. Even the trees. Throughout his book, he shows us the
advantages and disadvantages of who cannot live without wild things.
“THERE are some who can live without wild things, and some who cannot.
These essays are the delights and dilemmas of one who cannot. Like winds
and sunsets, wild things were taken for granted until progress began to do
away with them. Now we face the question whether a still higher ‘standard of
living’ is worth its cost in things natural, wild, and free. For us of the minority,
the opportunity to see a geese is more important that the television, and the
chance to find a pasque-flower is as right as inalienable as free speech.”
Based on the quotation above, Leopold’s shows us that we have to be
grateful for the opportunity to see nature before our eyes. Caring for nature
like they are our own family. From all of Leopold’s thinking and experience,
it inspired Arne Naess about ecology.
b. Think Like a Mountain
Arne Naess, an ecological philosopher who wrote in his book that the
solution nowadays needs to be taken is to follow what Leopold wrote. Arne
Naess stated that we must think like a mountain. Thinking like a mountain is
that to realize the responsibility towards all other living thing. We must first
recognize that human are a part of nature. We are to avoid environmental
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
By understanding our nature as human, responsibilities and challenges
we may see that the world itself is our responsibility. In Buddhism and
Hinduism, man is a part of nature. And man do not allow to rule the nature.
One misinterpretation in Christianity is about concept of man. Men can
employ the nature. It brings a bigger problem when man exploit everything
for himself without thinking the effect for the environment. Impulsive buying
is one of the behavior that makes us create more garbage’s to be thrown.
c. Regarding the Existing Garbage
Seeing the huge mountain of waste in TPA Suwung, we started to
think to let the nature talks. Lots of campaigns and government regulations
seem to be not working. People will only be moved by and through problems.
Let the nature push the human once the garbage problem is insurmountable.
We propose this solution as even though we give a positive solution,
and spend huge amount of money, would not be able to solve the mounting
amount of the garbage, as everyday garbage is produced even more. Second,
we see that humans tend not to listen to the “do’s and do not’s”. We see that
people will do something only after the nature starts talking through natural
disaster. This argumentation stated based on facts that even there is a complete
guidance from the government, complete guidance from the Holy books,
economical reason is still having bigger influence on decision on making or
not making garbage, produce more or less waste.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
d. The Perfect Society Called “Rumiland”
Our purpose on creating Rumiland is for humans and nature to have a
connection and start from the beginning where Adam and Eve had a connection
with the animals. The citizens and the nature will be under the protection of
Ruka Nakamatsu and the citizens there knows their responsibilities which is to
work and take care of the plants and other living things. The animals will be
set free as we would not allow zoos. Every citizens have to think like a
mountain and follow the concept of Leopold. (To treat nature as friends).
As our country is filled with large trees, the citizens lives under a big
tree in which holds the ground and our unity in the country. The citizens there
are free to sleep anywhere as we do not destroy anyone’s rights. And as for the
clothes we have come into an idea in which we barter with other country in
exchange with our natural resources. When the clothes can not be used
anymore, the citizens is to make blankets without cutting and leaving any
remains of the clothes.
We do not have currency as we only barter. The main jobs that will
take place is fisherman and farmer. We do not use chemical product as we will
be using natural resources. We respect highly towards the nature, we take the
natural resources as careful and peacefully as we do not want to disturb the
nature. The scraps that came from the fruits especially their skin will be eatable
since we grow then organically without using pesticides.
Rumiland has a program in which we limit the number of tourism
which we call Ecot. Ecot is short for Eco Tourism. The last but not least, we do
not declare war, accept war, help in war with other countries because citizens
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
of Rumiland live in the name of peace. From all of these, we believe no garbage
will be produced.
We will also provide children’s education. The purpose in this school
is to prepare the children for their future, teach them proper manner and to
make sure that they have enough fun and experiences in their life.
In every country there will always be rules and Rumiland’s most
important rule is to not harm the nature in anyway. Here are some of the law of
1. Do not harm the nature in any way possible
2. There will be a limit in which the fisherman could take in a day which is
50 fish.
3. The farmers are not allowed to use pesticide when farming. In that way,
we could eat the banana peel, the avocado peel and even orange so that the
amount of food scraps will not be a problem.
Other minor rules will be written in the book of Rumiland’s Law Book.
In other countries, the presidents and other institutions are the one that
make the law but in Rumiland, we decide the rules together, the punishments
and also cultures. Talking about culture, the citizens in Rumiland will not have
a specific religion as we only take care of the nature as we make a living. We
do not have a specific religion because we do not have any proof that God is
real but we know for sure that we are here for a reason and that is to take care
of the nature as they will take care of us as we follow the concept of Aldo
Leopold. We also have another culture where we celebrate both marriage an
birthday of both humans and animals.
SMP SPK Cendekia Harapan Bali, Indonesia
5. Conclusion
This study finds that solutions from government and society will not solve the
root of the problem. The reason behind this argument may be as stated as follows:
when the garbage is recycled, reused and reduced, the result will finally be more
garbage. Collecting garbage on the beach will also not give any long-term result since
the problem is in the human behavior, not in the garbage. Humans are so dependent
on too much things that they always end up with lots of waste.
This study has some limitation that should be addressed by future research, like
specific types of garbage or waste to be managed. Further study or research specific
to certain types of waste would most likely make the research more interesting.
6. Reference
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